Tuesday, August 6, 2013

Article on Papermaking Part 2


Pulp starts with two ingredients ... cellulose (plant fiber) and water. We watercolorists are primarily interested in cotton as our source of cellulose for paper , so there's little reason to cover others.

Water should be free of impurities such as iron, and should also be neutral pH. If not, it must be corrected before mixing with the prepared cotton. Cotton should be comprised of the longer filaments of the cotton ball, called staple fiber. The most economical and ready source is from the garment industry where cutoffs from cotton clothing are plentiful. Otherwise, buying the raw cotton requires boiling and chemical balancing and washing, which is an industry unto itself.

The shredded cotton is tossed into a tub of water where a machine resembling a high tech paddle wheel, called a "Hollander," beats the daylights out of the mixture as it mashes and chafes the long strands of cotton fibers. This machine sounds like the engine rooms of a snorkel submarine ... it's deafening. The pounding procedure forces the water molecules deep into the anatomy of the fiber to initiate hydrogen bonding.

This is a crucial stage in the process of creating paper. Too much pounding will produce a brittle, translucent paper. Too little beating will render a very soft paper that might cause reworking problems for the painter.

When the pulp is ready, usually a synthetic internal sizing is prepared and added to the pulp. The stock is moved to vats and, in the case of handmade paper, the vat man “forms” the sheet or else it's piped to machines. Nearly all papermakers use the same internal sizing agent, but the surface sizing material varies greatly.

1 comment:

  1. 차량은 비상 깜빡이가 켜진 채 도로 한 가운데서 10분 넘게 서 있었고 이 모습을 본 목격자들이 경찰에 카지노쿠폰 신고했다. 두리의 전공이 패션디자인인만큼 두리가 서울에 있을 때 꼭 보아야할 전시회 중 하나라고 생각한 '알폰스 무하展' 쿠팡에서 저렴하게 올라 왔을 때... 정말 존경스럽다♡ 아직, 예술사에 대해서도 모르는 것 투성이고 작품을 보는 나만의 시각을 완전히 가지지는 못했지만 점점 많은 화풍들을... 온라인 쇼핑몰과 배 달음식점등은 매출 증가 현상이 일어나 쿠팡(김병석 의장)은 뜻하지 않는 호황을 누리며 뉴욕 증권거래소 에... 쿠팡이츠, 배달의 민족, 요기요 등 근거리 즉시 배달 서비스인 '퀵커머스' 배달업계에 대한 수요는 많이 늘었다. 뉴시스의 모든 콘텐츠는 저작권법의 보호를 받는 바, 무단 전재ㆍ복사ㆍ배포를 금합니다.